"Beneath the blue veneer of a seemingly ageless ocean is one of the most rapidly changing environments on Earth. Chemistry, temperature, even the shape of the sea are all altered. Sea and sky are intimately linked; as we change the composition of the atmosphere, we change these most fundamental characteristics of the ocean..."
The Coral Reef InitiativeS for the Pacific (CRISP) aims to develop a vision for the future of coral reefs and the communities that depend on them and to introduce strategies and projects to conserve their biodiversity, while developing the economic and environmental services that they provide both locally and globally.
The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide is leading to an increase in dissolved CO2 in the oceans, leading to another increase in hydrogen ions and therefore a relative acidifi cation, although the pH still remains slightly alkaline. In addition, this will also lead to fewer available carbonate ions. This concentration contributes to the transformation of calcium ions from a solid state (calcium carbonate) to a liquid state. Thus, the calcifi cation rate will similarly decrease in all carbonate skeletal organisms, including corals. The risk of such a drop in calcium carbonate saturation is that dissolution factors, combined with mechanical destruction and bioerosion, will reverse coral reef construction and start fragmentation of the structure. It is generally thought that the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, currently of 386 ppm, should not exceed 450-500 ppm to avoid this situation. However, according to IPCC scenarios, such values will be reached in less than a century. More research is required to determine the eff ects of increasing seawater acidifi cation on more coral species, specifi cally through physiological studies on corals and their symbiotic zooxanthellae to establish the potential adaptability of some species. This report is available in English, French and Spanish.
This report from the Pew Center on Global Climate Change examines options for future international efforts to help vulnerable countries adapt to the impacts of climate change both within and outside the climate framework. Options outlined in the report include stronger funding and action under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, mandatory climate risk assessments for multilateral development finance, and donor country support for climate "insurance" in vulnerable countries.
Issued annually, the Arctic Report Card is a timely source for clear, reliable and concise environmental information on the state of the Arctic, relative to historical time series records. Some of the essays are based upon updates to articles in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society State of the Climate in 2008.
Material presented in the Report Card is prepared by an international team of scientists and is peer-reviewed by topical experts of the Climate Experts Group (AMAP) of the Arctic Council. The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) provides collaborative support through the delivery and editing of the biological elements of the Report Card. The audience for the Arctic Report Card is wide, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public interested in Arctic environment and science. The web-based format facilitates future timely updates of the content.
The capacity of ecosystems to deliver essential services to society is already under stress. The additional stresses imposed by climate change in the coming years will require extraordinary adaptation. We need to track the changing status of ecosystems, deepen our understanding of the biological underpinnings for ecosystem service delivery and develop new tools and techniques for maintaining and restoring resilient biological and social systems...
Article published in Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2009, Pages 46-54
In-depth focus on key areas of British Antarctic Survey Research such as Antarctica and Sea Level Rise, Antarctica and Climate Change, Retreating Ice Shelves, The Ozone Hole, Penguins and Albatrosses.
Ingtergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report, 2005 - Bert Metz, Ogunlade Davidson, Heleen de Coninck, Manuela Loos and Leo Meyer (Eds.)
Click here for Chapter 6: Ocean Storage (PDF)
The oceans play an important role in regulating the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere because CO2 can move quickly into and out of the oceans...Of the three places where carbon is stored—atmosphere, oceans, and land biosphere—approximately 93 percent of the CO2 is found in the oceans...
Mission: To advance public and private action on climate change through rigorous, innovative research.
Climate change is happening, and it has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that human activities are the main cause. The consequences of climate change could be enormous if we carry on with ‘business as usual.’ But it is not yet clear how our economic, social and political systems can respond to the challenge:
- What action should we take to create low-carbon economies?
- What strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will be effective, efficient and fair?
- How much should we invest, and when, on measures to reduce our vulnerability and exposure to climate change?
- Who should bear the costs, and who will enjoy the benefits?
Hosted jointly by the University of Leeds and the London School of Economics and Political Science, and chaired by Nicholas Stern, the Centre brings together some of the world’s leading researchers on climate change economics and policy, from many different disciplines. The CCCEP makes available a range of high quality research, which has a practical application.
The Centre has five inter-linked research programmes:
- Developing climate science and economics
- Climate change governance for a new global deal
- Adaptation to climate change and human development
- Governments, markets and climate change mitigation
- The Munich Re Programme: Evaluating the economics of climate risks and opportunities in the insurance sector.
Visit the Center's website for in depth information and publications on Climate Change Economics and Policy.
This report details how climate change is damaging entire reef systems in the Pacific and Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Author: Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, June 1, 1999. Published by Greenpeace.
Burning the Earth's remaining fossil resources without technology to capture the carbon they contain could subject the planet to five times as much extra heating from the greenhouse effect as it has already experienced, according to new research...
UN-HABITAT Global Urban Observatory 2008 provides maps detailing Asian, Caribbean and Latin American and African cities at risk from Sea Level Rise.